Mohammad Arshad Javed Shaikh, MPharm; Roshan S, PhD; Himmat Singh, PhD; Sarita Rawat, MPharm; Sachchidanand Pathak, MPharm; Anurag Mishra, PhD; Gaurav Gupta, PhD
Context • Diabetes is a metabolic disease, with high mortality, and is characterized by increased glucose levels in the blood occurring due to poor pancreatic insulin secretion or development of insulin resistance in the body. Type 2 DM (T2DM) represents 90% of diabetic cases, and its pathogenesis involves a genetic correlation with insulin resistance, β-cell dysfunction, lifestyle, and environmental factors.
Objective • The current study intended to examine the pathophysiology of T2DM, including factors influencing insulin resistance and beta (β)-cell dysfunction as well as the genetic factors that indicate susceptibility to T2DM.
Design • The research team performed a narrative review by searching the Mendeley, Science Direct, Medline, PubMed, Google Scholar, and Springer databases. The search used the keywords Diabetes, insulin secretion and environmental factor.
Setting • This study was take place in School of Pharmacy, Suresh Gyan Vihar University, Jaipur, India.
Results • The paraoxonase-1 gene Q192R and the L55M, INS-VNTR, and IL-38 gene alterations can result in insulin resistance while PAM variants and miR-132 and miR-18 expression can lead to β-cell dysfunction. Palmitate-like FFA expression of mRNA MafA, and IRS-2 can lead to impairment of insulin secretion.
Conclusions • T2DM is the most common metabolic disorder of the twenty-first century, and its incidence, complications, and morbidity increase every day. The examination of T2DM’s pathophysiology and the literature review have revealed that it has a strong correlation with genetic defects. (Adv Mind Body Med. 2020;35(3):31-39.)